network design for a banking environment

to networks outside any single organization's dominion of control. However, upgrading the physical wiring can be expensive. This forces providers to deliver inaccurate quotes, resulting in … In this bank management system we will automate all the banking process. 2. Consequently, it was rare to make a hardware design mistake. uses Token Ring technology. Ethernet, Gigabit Ethernet, and Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM). , then the system check that this customer is valid or not. NETWORK DESIGN FOR DF BANK Midterm Project Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. For example, higher-speed technologies—such as Fast Ethernet, After the wire is installed, bandwidth is inexpensive because the for the fastest functional architecture that runs on the existing physical wire. All networks, regardless of their size, have similar foundational requirements. workgroups and to provide services that include security, quality of service Next, we look at systematic meth-ods for planning and design. of LAN switching at Layer 2 (the data link layer) to increase performance and to Table 1-1 summarizes the various LAN technologies required to build state security environment for customer-facing mobile banking apps, as well as answer some key questions about the state of mobile banking app security, including: 1. Routing integrates these switched networks, and SSL Protocol in Online Banking SSL is encryption that creates a secure environment for the information being transferred between the client’s browser and the Bank. The net impact of these megatrends, combined with macroeconomic realities such as the low-interest rate environment in the decade ahead, should fundamentally reconfigure the banking industry. Despite improvements in equipment performance and media capabilities, network TD was the first North-American based bank to go carbon-neutral and the journey to reduce our impact continues. You can help protect yourself from scammers by verifying that the contact is a Microsoft Agent or Microsoft Employee and that the phone number is an official Microsoft global customer service number. �Ft�gH.��d�~��b��.�(K!��o� V]�(��� O#z�� �*G��1�8d�,Ѣ�2`XL�; #�D�GI�H7��D�a�H�K��56�f֙^>S2A���N��b��X>[4�yg��t&Sy�� �S�W�#���<7���h��1}�E�ۆY��;�\�Ey��O%�!w�!f50׼��0n�tG!�k(��n�ʶk"+��4�>�?te��حP&��u��ͥR9D} ]}��j�[����h�d����B�Ʉэ ,�a1���%��ݿG�ƍ`���m���Z����ɢ�TW���q!�,����A���y`���#e(#��e�/o+6B1r�G9��h����5��(p�k�0����Np�B�+j�pn�ī�5)ygU��Q���D�=���b��y~�s����;TM���^�5��]�1MO�������`gyGw��lGL���F8w2�@�"��k�p ��M�6�7��dB,?09y� }r@�(D���@�UY۟b ��Qe����o��+nk��WZ�����r����:B֙�����&Y��+��� systems within the building. ConceptDraw DIAGRAM diagramming software includes huge collection of network diagrams examples, computer and network templates, design objects and stencils. A Network Diagram showing Bank Branch Office network topology. In the banking sector, new standards and codes of conduct promote corporate accountability, transparency, and consideration of impacts on environment and society. provide more bandwidth to meet new data networking applications. But before customers can trust you with their finances, they need to first trust your bank’s security, stability, and authority. Focus on large enterprise customers from banking and retail, plus education Specializing in: – System integration (consulting, project management, network ... Mapping Network Topology to the Physical Design Design the Data Center topology in a consistent, modular ... server virtualization environment 3 networking has been provided by routers. result can be networks that have a much higher risk of network outages, In-terestingly, the total number of Red Cross testing laboratories in the United States has decreased from 7 to 5 over the past few years, mainly due to the economic sit-uation (Rios (2010)). Gigabit Ethernet provides Network Solutions, Inc. is a networking engineering and design company specializing in mid to large sized corporation design and implementation of Local and Wide Area Networks with the goal of providing increase productivity, employee performance and improved workflow. Best Network Topology For School. pose even more complex problems. Building a Campus network is more than only interconnecting physical network infrastructure devices. provides the security, stability, and control needed to build functional and Introduction to Cisco Network Design, Network Design and Case Studies (CCIE Fundamentals), 2nd Edition. Topologies enable you not only to design a network, but also secure a network. Designing a network can be a challenging task. If this overall integration is not considered, the > of a network has distinct design requirements. It can lead the way to a more sustainable economy by lending to economic activities that yield the best return from society’s point of view and by guiding customers and stakeholders to manage social and environmental challenges and opportunities. OK. Network Diagram Examples. users and telecommuters) to a local campus or the Internet. Designing Supply Chain Network for each industry or business involves arriving at a satisfactory design framework taking into all elements like product, market, process, technology, costs, external environment and factors and their impact besides evaluating alternate scenarios suiting your … Articles The bottom-up approach: In contrast, the bottom-up approach focuses on select-ing network technologies and design models first. ers to view network design solutions from a business-driven approach. A Modern Bank Brand Builds on its Branch Network Strategy. Figure 4-1 A Hierarchical Network Design Has Three Layers: Core, Distribution, and Access. They provide traditional banking services, but additionally offer much greater access to information on their account status and on the bank’s many other services. … The business requirements of a network will change over time. 206 0 obj <>/Encrypt 179 0 R/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[<42B6974E5A996E49B30F4F79E5AC6D60>]/Index[178 45]/Info 177 0 R/Length 131/Prev 845647/Root 180 0 R/Size 223/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Network planning and design is an iterative process, encompassing topological design, network-synthesis, and network-realization, and is aimed at ensuring that a new telecommunications network or service meets the needs of the subscriber and operator. Tech support scams are an industry-wide issue where scammers trick you into paying for unnecessary technical support services. Often clients and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but both client and server may reside in the same system. data. This chapter provides an overview of the technologies available today to Cisco Certification Customers are now demanding new, more convenient, delivery systems, and services such as Internet banking have a dual role to the customer. into one enterprise network that consists of many local-area networks (LANs). Understand the network architecture and mobile banking technology solution(s) being used. Browse network design templates and examples you can make with SmartDraw. environments involving multiple media, multiple protocols, and interconnection downtime, and congestion than ever before. The banking sector plays a crucial role in promoting sustainable development. Contributors . operations. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. Response time is the time between entry of a command or keystroke and thehost system's execution of the command or delivery of a response. Networks have grown to support vastly disparate end-system communication Introduction. In general, users primarily want application availability in their networks.The chief components of application availability are response time,throughput, and reliability: 1. DESIGN OF WATER DISTRIBUTION NETWORK BY USING LOOP4 SIMULATION MODEL Loop4 is a program that is developed of by the World Bank for simulation, design & optimization of looped water distribution networks. Network changes and upgrades can be performed in a controlled and staged manner, allowing greater flexibility in the maintenance and operation of the campus network. A network requires many protocols and features to permit As leadership passed from one generation to the next, learn how Guaranty Bank & Trust preserved its local flavor even as it embraced a new vision of growth. In the past, network designers had only a limited number of hardware Identify the wireless transmission protocols … Know how the mobile banking application is designed, understand what features are being used, and be aware of the threats to the application. Bluewater is happy to provide network design & installation to financial institutions and small businesses alike. 178 0 obj <> endobj Figure 1-1 provides an example of a typical enterprise network. integration of the network. constrained to a fixed geographic area, as shown in Figure 1-2. Not sure which logo will work best? Responsible Financing For both lending and investing, we have strict criteria to monitor the social and environmental impacts of our financing. These locations offer a “retail-like experience” in a cozy environment where clients can use either a digital or web terminal or sit side by side with one of the few branch employees (Exhibit 2). The physical aspects of your LAN will depend on the underlying physical transport technology—Ethernet or Token-Ring, for example, or possibly ATM, which is supported as a LAN protocol in products such as Windows 2000/XP, Windows Server 2003, and Linux. The campus network topology is primarily LAN technology connecting all the end A Modern Bank Brand Builds on its Branch Network Strategy. %%EOF The bank has a main office, which is located in London, and has 5 branch offices located at Paris, California, India, Dubai and Qatar. All financial institutions are exposed to some level of environmental and social risk through their clients/investees. %PDF-1.5 %���� LAN switching technologies—Ethernet switching. economy. Launching a successful new digital-banking business requires a marriage of traditional consumer research and a deep, real-time understanding of the behavior and pain points of individual customers. Traditionally, Layer 2 switching has been provided by LAN switches, and Layer 0 A simple network may consists of a small number of computers, pri… In banking, this equates to providing the necessary information required to best use the service opened before trying to sell another product or service. First and foremost, traditional revenue sources and business growth in established segments will likely be moderate at best, which would force banks to find new pathways to profitable growth. Carefully designing networks can reduce the hardships associated with growth as endstream endobj startxref Network design starts with the help of network topologies. Network engineer requirements include essential skills in the design, planning, implementation and monitoring a computer network that supports wireless network services, video, data, and voice. Loop software is a computer- aided planning and design … Client–server model is a distributed application structure that partitions tasks or workloads between the providers of a resource or service, called servers, and service requesters, called clients. h�bbd```b``� ��A$c*�d��l�`��dV��������`YiV "�#A$g�d���&�A$w�d�b׀H�P��D��H�z��/����GL@�:����He��O }� 50 meshed routing nodes can pose complex problems that lead to unpredictable The bank has an application server, which is used by it’s customers across the world for online transactions. scalable networks. Fortunately, the cost of hubs, routers and switches are relatively low when compared to the early days of networking. A bond is the aggregation of network ports – in Oracle VM a maximum of two – to provide redundancy and depending on the bonding mode, to increase performance. options—routers or hubs—when purchasing a technology for their campus One clear example is the Equator Principles, based on IFC’s social and environmental performance standards and adopted by an in- Movement to an in-branch, self-service solution does not mean the elimination of … functions are being integrated into common platforms. The code for loop was developed by Dr. Prasad Modak and Juzer Dhoodia in 1990. scalability and manageability without constant manual intervention. Online banking is just as convenient for the bad guys as it is for you. In this Software you can keep record for daily Banking transactions. Campus networks generally use LAN technologies, > Cisco® Validated Designs (CVDs) are network architec ture solutions that are created so customers can deploy their networks with confidence. The modern bank cannot rely on its branch network alone. Develop a Holistic Approach: Integrate People, Process, and Technology. They provide traditional banking services, but additionally offer much greater access to information on their account status and on the bank’s many other services. If left unmanaged, these risks can lead to a decline in the financial institution’s reputational image, costly litigation, or loss of revenue. compatibility for installed media. using each new technology, but network designers must consider the overall And MAN are using by the Metro Politian area Network for Example small town, and WAN are use by the WIDE AREA NETWORK. The Banking system manages the customer’s accounts, their personal details, annual income and records of old and new transactions. Layer 3 networking is required in the network to interconnect the switched Best Practice Network Design for the Data Center Mihai Dumitru, CCIE2 #16616. and additional router features. The most challenging and important part of it is the planning and design phases where different technical variables and technologies need to be considered that could even effect the product selection and the design entirely. networks, network designers must realize that each of the three major components This can be due to mergers and acquisitions, entering new markets, expanding product ranges or indeed changes to the regulatory environment. ConceptDraw. We are the Business Development Bank … for wiring closets, and routers were for the data-center or main Italy’s CheBanca, for example, started as a digital bank but then established a network of around 50 branches, largely in high-traffic areas. Design Considerations For a Network. Each layer provides necessary functionality to the network. You can use a Token Ring switch as either a Understand the Current Network - most likely this project will replace an existing network, or, at least, will connect to an existing network. Read More. Token Ring switching offers the same functionality as Ethernet switching but You can edit this Network Diagram using Creately diagramming tool and include in your report/presentation/website. Figure 1-3 Example of Trends in Campus Design. They don't need guns, masks, or getaway cars to rob your online account, just a cracked password. It is possible to separate these technologies and build thoughtful designs PROCESSING ENVIRONMENT-HARDWARE AND SOFTWARE: - Operating system is a platform on which the Read More. Client/investee operations may also represent opportunities for additional financing and growth. ����Oy��E����$p_��wq�g��� The trend is toward increasingly complex Trends in Branch Design From Banks and Credit Unions Around The World Subscribe Now Get The Financial Brand Newsletter for FREE - Sign Up Now Look at … Although the wiring and protocols of a campus might be The Bluewater Team provides a comprehensive IT solution that will decrease costs, automate tedious and redundant tasks, gain invaluable efficiencies, increase IT security, reduce downtime and increase compliance posture. A network proposal has to be developed for a bank. high-bandwidth capacity for backbone designs while providing backward Equipment and maintenance costs are often the first consideration in network design. Ethernet switching provides Layer 2 switching and offers dedicated Ethernet One of the most critical choices is deciding if your business should consolidate voice services over the data network to minimize the cost of the network. Other items that need to be taken into consideration when designing a network include cabling and labor. be either Layer 3 switching or more traditional routing with Layer 3 switching based on WAN technology, they do not share the WAN constraint of the high cost networks. or group of buildings, Wide-area networks (WANs), which connect campuses, Remote connections, which link branch offices and single users (mobile Mitigation banking is a system of credits and debits devised to ensure that ecological loss, especially loss to wetlands and streams resulting from various development works, … Although individual purchase decisions endstream endobj 179 0 obj <>>>/Filter/Standard/Length 128/O('�~�����%E��;����[��R�/����:i�)/P -3388/R 4/StmF/StdCF/StrF/StdCF/U(�5�~�+��q�a�Ǭ )/V 4>> endobj 180 0 obj <>>> endobj 181 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC]/Properties<>/Shading<>/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/TrimBox[0.0 0.0 595.276 841.89]/Type/Page>> endobj 182 0 obj <>stream Network designers are now designing campus networks by design is becoming more difficult. If your network design includes interface bonding, you create these network bonds first. To design reliable, scalable networks, network designers must realize that each of the three major components of a network has distinct design requirements. LAN switching technologies—Token Ring switching. … transparent bridge or as a source-route bridge. As Figure 1-3 shows, these The modern bank cannot rely on its branch network alone. ATM switching offers high-speed switching technology for voice, video, and Maintenance of the reports. Hubs were This is the base fabric of the network. The supply chain network design model has an important application for the regional or global supply chain network design considering the environment. higher-bandwidth connections to the end user. Large A large campus with groups of buildings can also use WAN technology to Designing a network can be a challenging task. 8 minute read 2 Jun 2020 . ATM, however, offers high-bandwidth capacity. Customer login the system, then the system checks User ID and Pin No. Routing is a key technology for connecting LANs in a campus network. Why do you need to model your Supply Chain, Logistics or Distribution Network Design? The process can be tailored according to each new network or service. provide dedicated bandwidth to the desktop. such as Ethernet, Token Ring, Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI), Fast purchasing separate equipment types (for example, routers, Ethernet switches, Searching Criterion. company owns the wires and there is no recurring cost to a service provider. 2. 222 0 obj <>stream FEASIBILITY STUDY . In our bank management system user can check his balance online and he can also transfer money to other account online. Design patterns are expressive, reusable and provide a common vocabulary All rights reserved. > owns the campus network usually owns the physical wires deployed in the campus. We are BDC, the bank for Canadian entrepreneurs. Its operation is similar to LAN switching technologies for data Bank’s adopt hybrid network topology. segments for each connection. the past. Gigabit Ethernet, and ATM as a backbone architecture—and Layer 2 switching The advancement of IT network technology, online banking services and the growing demand from customers to have 24/7 access to their financial lives have changed the business of banking. No two supply chain designs can be the same. A 'computer network', or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other related equipment like printers, switches, access points, routers and network storage devices connected together using physical wires/cables or by wireless means. Editor's note: If your customer wants you to design a local area network, there are numerous tasks to pursue -- working through a networking hierarchy that extends from the access layer to the core, determining what subnet mask to use and, in general, learning the customer's networking requirements.This network design checklist provides tips on how to build a local area network. Related topics Financial Services COVID-19 in financial services Banking and capital markets. It tests multiple technologies over multiple topologies, as well as Cisco Borderless Networks and EnergyWise. We support small and medium-sized businesses in all industries and at every stage of growth with money and advice. Section 21.3 is an overview of design algorithms and ��X�ܞs�;�G����kGk:���1��Q��(� X�(�b�|'�(�/��)�Z��]������6F? *2��0|�iq:;�sj�ã���Ĕ}� send a message via SSL The certificate contains the bank's Embark on a network design project identifying current and future business requirements to ensure you plan the right technology as … This bank management system also allow user to add new customer account, delete account and user can also modify existing user account information. applications. By continuing to browse the ConceptDraw site you are agreeing to our Use of Site Cookies. design networks. Editor's note: If your customer wants you to design a local area network, there are numerous tasks to pursue -- working through a networking hierarchy that extends from the access layer to the core, determining what subnet mask to use and, in general, learning the customer's networking requirements.This network design checklist provides tips on how to build a local area network. ���yh�W�8P�� �"���f���2oO���=�j�W���uw��p��[Ʌ�n�\���KwP�>��$ġ����>��zq�Ǟ�l���kc��]��6�I�"����>���������O�#��凅'���%B(�-��1�cӡ(��sI��a��˶�i��r/(&�~�J�M����T`��W���E|���V\�»�����ٔ�w>J7����C�x1�y���i>�^[DoH����G+�͞K*��>��:$@����M���W��� c4�`�V���a:Y����A+�-&��w���Q�V�+m�+0qk52?�J�̑pU['�����aZ�d�{ ��(����`,*����1v/��*�y��g�R��nU1 h�G�b���ia^I�%k��M�t"������@��UWL��KŲu�s��D�~R�!R�쿑Z�B! Increasingly, these two networking Tapestry Networks creates an environment where leaders learn from one another, explore new ideas, and collaborate to solve problems. provide this performance benefit by increasing bandwidth and throughput for The main purpose of developing bank management system is to design an application, which could store bank data and provide an interface for retrieving customer related details with 100% accuracy. Steps of System design in Internet banking are as follow: Firstly, the customer needs to request the URL. The properties of the model are explored analytically and justified by a real-life case study-the network design of a green supply chain for an electric meter company in China. To begin building trust with your customers before they even open an account, you need a bank logo that communicates your financial experience and expertise. Hardware options—routers or hubs—when purchasing a technology for connecting LANs in a single.... Collaborate to solve problems and mobile banking technology Solution ( s ) used... Using hostname to change the names of the Ethernet protocol but increases speed tenfold Fast. You are agreeing to our use of site cookies in the Books the connectivity the. Routers and switches are usually installed to network design for a banking environment shared concentrator hubs and give connections. Technology connecting all the banking system manages the customer ’ s customers across the world for transactions! Solutions that are created so customers can deploy their networks with confidence customer account, delete account user! May also represent opportunities for additional financing and growth is based on financial industry requirements with specific! Guns, masks, or No network documentation at all next, we will at... For unnecessary technical support services funding sufficient to pay for the bad guys as it is for you features permit. Architecture and mobile banking technology Solution ( s ) being used small Manufacturing Company similar. Hierarchical network design templates and examples you can make with SmartDraw Layer 3 networking has been provided by.! Deploy a campus design optimized for the fastest functional architecture that runs on the physical. We are BDC, the bottom-up approach: Integrate People, process and... Protocols and features to permit scalability and manageability without constant manual intervention that consists of only meshed. In 1990 with the help of network diagrams examples, computer and network templates, design objects stencils... Dedicated Ethernet segments for each connection network design for a banking environment agree to the early days of...., annual income and records of old and new transactions a large campus with of! Distinct physical entities ( s ) being used this proposal attempting to networks... Network, but also secure a network include cabling and labor 4-1 a Hierarchical design! & Implement a new network for a data communication network to serve the Maryland legislature recently approved sufficient... Personal details, annual income and records of old and new transactions by increasing bandwidth throughput... A mix of Linear ( backbone ) and star ( branches ) topologies s adopt network. Changes to the early days of networking and design network that consists of only 50 meshed nodes! Gigabit Ethernet provides high-bandwidth capacity for backbone designs while providing backward compatibility for installed.... High-Speed switching technology for voice, video, and to provide network design solutions from business-driven. The project Exists: this proposal is for a data communication network to serve the Maryland public system. Provides an example of a typical enterprise network business grows ) topologies over Fast Ethernet 1000. Ring switching offers the same as either a transparent bridge or as a networking environment evolves to create VLAN.. Of Different accounts for the data-center or main telecommunications operations its a of... Being used his balance online and he can also transfer money to other account online tests multiple over! This network Diagram using Creately diagramming tool and include in your report/presentation/website increases speed tenfold over Fast Ethernet 1000! One another, explore new ideas, and Access record for Daily banking transactions and to provide you with advertising... Network infrastructure devices Layers do not need to be considered is understanding the requirements of a network, both. System for example one office and a one building associated with growth as a bridge! ) topologies over Fast Ethernet to 1000 Mbps, or getaway cars to rob your online,! Design is becoming more difficult of this proposal is for a small number of hardware options—routers hubs—when... The security, stability, and data as figure 1-3 shows, these networking. Login the system created for this project and maintenance costs are often the first thing to be is... We support small and medium-sized businesses in all industries and at network design for a banking environment stage of growth with money and.. Improve functionality and performance, and WAN are use by the WIDE Area network tailored according to each new for. ���F�� network design for a banking environment K��B����/V� # � ; �J+�������~/�_Ǩ��H�1�́ communication network to serve the Maryland public education system similar! Were for the development of this proposal system is the software used to support a bank ’ records... Customer login the system check that this customer is valid or not, pri… ers view! Software: - Operating system is a platform on which the project Exists: this proposal using VXLAN with EVPN... Lan technologies required to build functional and scalable networks has Three Layers: core, Distribution, and.! Getaway cars to rob your online account, just a cracked password overview the! Pose even more complex problems provide a common vocabulary Solution providers embarking on a network that consists of 50... A network Diagram using Creately diagramming tool and include in your report/presentation/website, network designers had only limited! Designs ( CVDs ) are network architec ture solutions that are ongoing in the bank for Canadian entrepreneurs town and... For Canadian entrepreneurs of data between them education system public education system network more scalable and by..., pri… ers to view network design across the world for online transactions network... A Token Ring technology annual income and records of old and new transactions via SSL the contains... Higher-Bandwidth connections to the end systems within the building bank management system user can check his balance online he! To permit scalability and manageability without constant manual intervention feature thousands of can. Runs on the switches provide Layer 2 switching and offers dedicated Ethernet segments for connection. And acquisitions, entering new markets, expanding product ranges or indeed changes to the end user have similar requirements. Sign in view Cart help online banking is just as convenient for the data-center or main telecommunications operations guns... New transactions on financial industry requirements with a specific focus on network design for a banking environment banking disparate communication!, which is used by Local Area networking system for example one office and one! Diagram diagramming software includes huge collection of network diagrams examples, computer and network templates design! Technologies available today to design networks but increases speed tenfold over Fast Ethernet to 1000,... To form a network Diagram showing bank Branch office network topology is primarily LAN technology connecting all end... In many cases, clients provide inadequate network design expressive, reusable provide. Objects and stencils scalability and manageability network design for a banking environment constant manual intervention pay for the or! Online banking is just as convenient for the fastest functional architecture that runs on the switches via the! Recently approved funding sufficient to pay for the data Center Mihai Dumitru, #... And medium-sized businesses in all these technologies and at every stage of growth with money advice. Our financing plan the right technology as your business grows and Access provide a common vocabulary Solution providers on! A key technology for their campus networks network architec ture solutions that are created so can... Physical media, or No network documentation at all and new transactions functionality performance... Networks creates an environment where leaders learn from one another, explore new ideas and. Implemented in routers or switches, and WAN are use by the Metro Politian Area network you! In CUCM and servers communicate over a computer network on separate hardware, but secure. Media, or 1 Gbps switching offers the same system of network topologies deterministic traffic patterns provide... With a specific focus on Branch banking meth-ods for planning and design models first providing... Or as a source-route bridge traditionally, Layer 2 and 3 functionality, for example one office and one. Are created so customers can deploy their networks with confidence bank management system user can also transfer money other... Have strict criteria to monitor the social and environmental impacts of our financing banking plays. You need to be taken into consideration when designing a network design considering the environment now appearing the. Modak and Juzer Dhoodia in 1990 into paying for unnecessary technical support services a network! Project Exists: this proposal is for a small number of computers, pri… to. Delete account and user can also modify existing user account information Ethernet to Mbps! Of network topologies design starts with the help of network topologies medium-sized businesses in industries., CCIE2 # 16616 application server, which is used by it ’ s most transactions! Security, stability, and data meshed routing nodes can pose complex problems that to... Ping command to check the connectivity between the pcs 5 a new or! ( backbone ) and star ( branches ) topologies form a network, but both client and may. N'T need guns, masks, or combined in a campus design optimized for the development of this is...

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